Can I compare my measurement of happiness with the one in another study? Is it just like comparing meters to miles?
Why my measurement shows that polarization is increasing but another study shows the opposite?
Today we will clarify one crucial aspect of the social sciences: measurements. Especially, we will see that (1) these measurements are quite different from measurements in physics, (2) what we can do with them and (3) when we have to be careful.
What is this all about?
Let me start by telling you that this is not about the difference between interval and ordinal scales. They are important too, and they can mess everything up as well; that is why we will have an entire series just dedicated to them. But not today.
Today we speak about something even more basic: how quantities are defined. Let us start by looking at the world of physics.
Concepts in physics
I am pretty sure you are familiar with the concepts of length and distance. And you can discuss these with anyone without worrying that the other person may interpret distance in a completely different way. Besides relying on common knowledge, we can also check how the units of distance are defined, reading for example that:
The metre is currently defined as the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum in 1/299 792 458 of a second.
Something you may be wondering now is: why does this sounds so ugly and boring at the same time? Why do we have a damn fraction in the definition?
The short answer is: because physics heavily relies on operative definitions. These definitions are not aimed at explaining a general concept, but more at telling you how to practically measure something.
Have you ever heard of the fact that science is “reproducible?”
Well, these definitions are aimed exactly at that. They make sure that everyone would measure exactly the same things. They make sure that we all know exactly what 100 meters are, with no room for interpretation.
Concepts in the social sciences
As you may expect, the social sciences do not rely much on operative definitions. This is not because social sciences are bad, or worse, or anything else along these lines; but mostly because they focus on general concepts.
Indeed, if you get the definition of happiness from the APA Dictionary of Psychology you read:
an emotion of joy, gladness, satisfaction, and well-being.
As you can tell, this does not contain any information about the measuring process. But is this a problem?
As we will see in the next lines, this will definitely be a problem if we do not understand this process.
Let’s explore it better
Ok, let’s suppose we want to measure how many potato chips are in a bag of chips. Sounds like an easy task, right? Well, actually it is quite a complex one. Indeed, while we have no problem with “full chips,” we do not really know what to do with a broken potato chip.
Take as an example the image on the left. Should we count this as 1 chip? It someway makes sense as you could recompose it to be a “full” chip. But it also makes sense to consider it 0 as, it is clearly not a full chip.
Someone else may also claim that we count each fragment separately, as every piece in the mouth is indistinguishable from a small chip. Therefore we should count this as 6.
Notice that this debate could go on forever getting progressively more and more complex, with questions such as:
- How big should be a fragent to be still considered in the count?
- When a “full chip” becomes a fragment? (consider a chip with a very small missing piece)
The main problem is that we do not have an operative definition of potato chips. Nor do we have a unit of measurement for chips.
This means that every person will measure a different number of chips.
Can we convert them?
Let us suppose that the measurement that takes into account both full chips and fragments tell us that we have 100 chips. How many full chips do we have? That is: how do we convert this number into another measurement?
As you may expect you cannot precisely do this, as the first measurement simply merged everything together (i.e. full and fragments of chips). So the only thing you know is that the number you are looking for is between 0 and 100; which is not very precise…
Similarly, if you know that in another bag you have 50 full chips, you still have no idea of how many fragments+full chips you may have. Maybe it is 50, maybe it is 10,000; who knows?
And this is quite a big range of uncertainty!
This is not a statistical problem
Many people here may feel like this is the same old problem of sampling: you may get a bag with 20 chips or a bag with 30 chips; so what’s new here?
The fact is that this is not a sampling problem but a measurement one. Indeed, the bag is always the same. We did not resample or replaced it with anything else. What we changed is how we are measuring, but the object is still the same.
Is this an artifact?
An argument that I hear often is that “this is an artefact.” This can also be rephrased as “one of these measurements is the correct one and the other is simply wrong“. And, someway, this argument is correct; but it is also quite wrong. Let’s see why.
Let us suppose we want to predict the number of times a certain child (le’ts call her “child X”) will put her hand in the bag of chips for eating. We know that this child picks fragments and full chips one by one, as long as they are above a certain size S.
In this case, we want to count as 1 each peace above size S and ignore smaller pieces. Every other measurement would generate artefacts… in this context.
Suppose, instead, we are dealing with child Y. This child eats full chips one by one, while she does not eat fragments. So, in this case, the correct measurement would be counting as 1 full chips and every fragment should be counted as 0.
This means that the right measurement is determined by what we want to measure. And all the other measurements will introduce some artifacts.
Therefore, we cannot have a measurement which is good in every situation.
Just use differnt names
Another interesting argument that I hear sometimes is that we need better classification. For example, instead of using the general concept of “chips” we may distinguish them into “full chips” and “fragments.”
While this approach is helpful, as it limits the possibilities we have, it still does not completely solve the problem. Indeed, as we discussed before, when does a full chip become a fragment?
You can observe something similar in this article where they notice that the concept of “polarization” is too vague and the authors come up with 4 main sub-types of polarization. However, the same article then highlights how the same sub-type can be still measured in different ways.
Indeed, at the end of the day, what specifies exactly how to measure something is the measurement process itself (i.e. the operative definition). This is why better (non-operative) definitions ay help but not solve the problem.
Can correlation save us?
An important ally of every scientist in the social sciences is our friend correlation. Indeed, as we will see, it can strongly help us in solving some of these problems. Even if we should not blindly trust it as we may still end up with some bad surprise.
When to trust it
Consider a chips brand whose bags contain usually 90% full chips and 10% fragments. In this case, you can easily convert one measurement into the other. For example, if you measure 100 in the measurement which counts also fragments, you should have a number very close to 90 in the full-chips measurement.
If this relationship (i.e. 90-10) is not given to you as initial data, you can still explore it using tools such as linear modelling or simple correlation. You just need the process to be reliable. In this case, you will be able to know:
- How to transform one measurement in the other
- How precise your estimate of the second measurement will be
(i.e. how uncertain your prediction is going to be)
If it is so simple, why even bother with the first part of this post? The problem is that things are not always so simple…
When you should not trust it
You figured out that for brand X, the percent full/fragment is 90/10. So now you can use both the full-chips measurement and the full+fragment since you can convert one into the other; very well!
What happens now if you apply this relationship (90/10) to another brand? Or if the same brand changes something in their production chain altering this ratio?
The problem here is that you can convert the two measurements as long as they have a stable relationship. But this relationship may change in time or not be universal at all (i.e. it works only for a specific brand).
For example, two measurements of polarization may be perfectly equivalent in France but not in Germany. If you know this phenomenon, you will not be surprised to see the two methods diverging. However, many scientists are unaware of this and they may get totally puzzled by these results.
Some people may reach this point and ask: if we are always measuring the same thing, why do we end up having different results?
And the answer is: because we are actually measuring different things!
Yes, we started from the same macro-definition (chips, polarization, happiness, …). But then, we ended up using different operative definitions. This means that practically we measured different things (e.g. full chips vs fragments). This generates the following situations/problems:
- We cannot directly compare results.
- We can estimate one measurement from the other by using correlation/linear modelling and making sure that we are not changing anything important between the two measurements (finger crossed🤞).
- The measurement which is the best for us may actually be bad for other people/studies.
- Different measurements may actually produce different dynamic behaviors (e.g. one measurement shows increasing polarization and the other shows decreasing)
While we explored points 1 to 3, we did not really discuss point number 4. This is because it deserves a lot of attention and we will have a post just on that (coming up in 1 or 2 weeks).
If you are interested in measurements and how this may affect modelling (especially I am interested in agent-based modelling), check out this blog or my social media, as I will keep exploring this topic.
See you soon!